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The pope then solemnly invested Frederick II as King of Sicily in a Bull issued about the middle of November, 1198.
Before the Bull reached Sicily Constance had died, but before her death she had appointed Innocent as guardian of the orphan-king.
She appealed to Innocent III to save the Sicilian throne for her child.
The pope made use of this opportunity to reassert papal suzerainty over Sicily, and acknowledged Frederick II as king only after Constance had surrendered certain privileges contained in the so-called Four Chapters, which William I had previously extorted from Adrian IV.
The tactful and energetic pope made good use of the opportunity offered him by this vacancy for the restoration of the papal power in Rome and in the States of the Church.
The emperor's widow Constance, who ruled over Sicily for her little son, was unable to cope singly against the Norman barons of the Sicilian Kingdom, who resented the German rule and refused to acknowledge the child-king.
This is a pictorial battle plan dating from 1594 of the 1592 siege of Eniskellen castle in Ireland.
Although it is attributed Made and dun by John Thomas Solder’ nothing more is known about the draughtsman except that he drew a similar plan of the battle at Beleek the previous year. It shows how the castle was taken using cannons in trenches, a greate bote’ with 67 men on board which was rowed round and anchored by the wall to breach it, and scaling ladders on the far side of the castle.
In like manner the Duchy of Spoleto and the Districts of Assisi and Sora were wrested from the German knight, Conrad von Uerslingen.
The league which had been formed among the cities of Tuscany was ratified by the pope after it acknowledged him as suzerain.